If you are on a "municipal" water supply, it is the responsibility of the water utility to deliver water that meets the minimum EPA standards. If you are a private well owner, you are your own water company. You become responsible for insuring the safety of your water supply. For well owners, we strongly recommend regular bacteria checks and an occasional inorganic water analysis. Whether you have a well or a municipal supply, your water will have more than H2O in it, and it is likely to be improved with treatment.
Almost all of our Northern Arizona water is "hard", with calcium bicarbonates being the primary constituent of the water. Typical hardness ranges from 7 grains per gallon to over 30 grains, but hardness readings of up to over 100 grains are also found. Hardness typically manifests itself as "lime scale". Hardness levels above 10.5 are considered extremely hard.
Most of our water contains arsenic. Typical ranges are from 5 parts per billion to 50 parts per billion, but can be higher. See our Arsenic page.
Municipal water supplies are generally chlorinated to help prevent bacterial outbreaks. While most of our water supplies are not too heavily chlorinated, the chlorine can give an unpleasant taste or odor to the water. Chlorine also reacts with other substances in the water, creating chlorine byproducts, such as trihalomethanes.
Other Well Water Problems
Other less common water problems we encounter in our area on some private wells are iron, manganese, rotten egg smell, nitrates, bacteria, and heavy metals.